The Kirkpatrick Model: Principles
O.K.! With this blog, we’re finishing our description of the Kirkpatrick Model by detailing its Principles. Before that part, however, we really need to recap the previous blogs in this series. Why? It’s so easy to forget or simply get trapped by details. In short, we need to be able to see the forest for the trees (with the Kirkpatrick Business Partnership Model [KBPM] being the forest). So, quickly . . .
The KPBM obviously has many similarities with the levels, though the order seems to have been reversed. Why is that? Let’s look at the first Kirkpatrick principle.
Let’s remember that the Kirkpatrick Partners argue that the chain model is the best way to appreciate the interrelated nature of assessing training programs. And, of course, the reason for the training program is because of a business need that has been identified.
- The end is the beginning. This principle reminds us that any training program—really any business decision—should be directly linked to a business need that was established at the onset.
- Inventor Don Kirkpatrick realized that assessing a training program necessitates understanding the organizational framework. This conditions data collection, surveying learning, and monitoring subsequent work behavior, in other words a chain of understanding and evidence. Administrators will be forced to rely on anecdotal comments and impressions if they don’t keep the end (the business need) in mind.
- Return on Expectations (ROE) is the ultimate indicator of value. In short, administrators need to understand that the money spent on training and assessment should translate into a positive organizational net gain. This part is quantitative, but it’s not necessarily simple. Program managers need to be able to envision what “success” would look like to them. In so doing, those designing training will be understanding business desires/needs while helping administrators and managers refine their business goals and expectations. Business partnership is essential to bring about positive ROE. When the Kirkpatrick Partners speak of a business partnership, they are redirecting the focus of training from the traditional focus of course content and employee knowledge. First, and yes, course content is extremely important, however, it’s not an end in itself; the end is the ROE. Bringing about a positive ROE will be impossible if employees fail to apply their learning, especially if it is forgotten after a period. That’s why the business partnership is key.
- he partnership is amongst employees, managers, and the administrator. Managers must be able to coach and encourage employees, and the administrator and managers must be able to create and offer incentives for success. This is one of the reasons why it’s important to be able to visualize success during the phase of training design.
- Value must be created before it can be demonstrated. In the aforementioned Kirkpatrick “A Fresh Look,” they call upon an industry study that identifies the sources of training failure. The largest area of failure by far was the application of the training in the work environment (70%). Principle 4 is a direct correlate of Principle 3. What do Principles 3 and 4 mean when taken together? Simply that training professions need to radically adjust their understanding of role. Instead of solely being the traditional, knowledgeable, empathic instructor, they need to guide organizations (administrators, managers, and employees) in a plan that includes operational execution and oversight. A compelling chain of evidence demonstrates your bottom line value. Principle 5 brings us back to the beginning, being able to demonstrate the ROE for the specified business need. The sequential nature of the levels and principles is based on the requirement to document value through the associated causation of the training and its follow-up. With this principle, the results are related to the business need, and organizations can begin the process of refining goals and modifying training practices.
Next week, we’ll finish up the series by comparing the KPBM with other models and placing this in the context of the modern business environment.
Craig Lee Keller, Ph.D., Learning Strategist